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Instrument development and the meas- derings related to the power as knowing participation in urement of unitary constructs discount 110 mg carbidopa medications on airline flights. Unitary perspectives on methodological prac- harmony: A theory of Rogerian nursing practice buy carbidopa 300mg symptoms rotator cuff injury. Turbulent mirror: An illustrated Theoretical issues buy carbidopa 110 mg mastercard symptoms 6 days after iui, methodological challenges, and research guide to chaos theory and the science of wholeness. Spirituality as integrality: A Rogerian Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, 11, 7–20. Spirituality: A pattern manifestation of doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York. The relationship of time experience, cre- Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, 2, 12–18. Governing Council of the Society for the Advancement of Rogers: Her life and her work. Rogers: Her life and of dying, the experience of paranormal events, and creativity her work (pp. Developing an effective pattern ap- and human field pattern, risk taking, and time experience: An praisal to guide nursing care of children with heart variations investigation of Rogers’ principles of homeodynamics. Rogers: tice-level theory of sleeping, waking, and beyond waking Her life and her work (pp. Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, Nursing Science Quarterly, 2, 5–6. Rogers and her work experience, human field motion, and time experience in older (pp. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York the Education Violet, the New York University newspaper, University, New York. Previous works include Nursing Fundamentals (1974); Man-Living-Health: A Rosemarie Rizzo Parse is professor and Niehoff Theory of Nursing (1981); Nursing Research: chair at Loyola University in Chicago. She is Qualitative Methods (1985); Nursing Science: Major founder and editor of Nursing Science Quarterly; Paradigms, Theories, and Critiques (1987); president of Discovery International, Inc. The body-mind-spirit nurse scholars in Australia, Canada, Denmark, perspective is particulate—focusing on the bio- Finland, Greece, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Sweden, psycho-social-spiritual parts of the whole human the United Kingdom, the United States, and other as the human interacts with and adapts to the envi- countries on five continents. Parse is a graduate of Duquesne University in psychological, social, and spiritual well-being. This Pittsburgh, and she received her master’s and doc- ontology leads to research and practice on phe- torate from the University of Pittsburgh. She was on nomena related to preventing disease and main- the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh, was dean taining and promoting health according to societal of the Nursing School at Duquesne University, and norms. In contrast, the unitary perspective is a view from 1983 to 1993 was professor and coordinator of of the human-universe process as irreducible, un- the Center for Nursing Research at Hunter College predictable, and ever-changing. It is not a static state but, rather, is ever-changing as the human chooses ways of living. This ontology leads Introducing the Theory: to research and practice on patterns (Rogers, 1992), The Human Becoming lived experiences, and quality of life (Parse, 1981, School of Thought 1992, 1997a, 1998a). Because the ontologies of these paradigmatic perspectives lead to different re- Presently, nurse leaders in research, administration, search and practice modalities, they lead to differ- education, and practice are focusing attention on ent professional services to humankind. The goal of the discipline is to expand knowledge The profession of nursing consists of people edu- about human experiences through creative concep- cated according to nationally regulated, defined, and tualization and research. The standards and regulations are to preserve the safety of health care for members of society. The nursing regulations and standards are Knowledge of the discipline is the scientific specified predominantly in medical/scientific terms. This is according to tradition and is largely related to nursing’s early subservience to medicine. The the nurse leaders in health-care systems and in regu- discipline-specific knowledge is given birth and lating organizations have been developing standards fostered in academic settings where research and ed- (Mitchell, 1998) and regulations (Damgaard & ucation move the knowledge to new realms of un- Bunkers, 1998) consistent with discipline-specific derstanding. The goal of the profession is to provide knowledge as articulated in the theories and frame- service to humankind through living the art of the works of nursing. Members of the nursing profession are re- ment that will fortify the identity of nursing as a sponsible for regulating the standards of practice discipline with its own body of knowledge—one and education based on disciplinary knowledge that that specifies the service that society can expect from reflects safe health service to society in all settings. The totality paradigm frameworks and Human Becoming language is unique to nursing. Nurses living the beliefs of this nine concepts written in verbal form with “ing” paradigm are concerned with participation of per- endings to make clear the importance of the ongo- sons in health-care decisions but have specific ing process of change as basic to human-universe regimes and goals to bring about change for the emergence. Nurses living the simultaneity unitary beings, as specified in the ontology, pre- paradigm beliefs hold people’s perspectives of their cludes any use of terms such as physiological, bio- health situations and their desires to be primary. Human Becoming, a school of thought named such The assumptions of the human becoming school of because it encompasses on ontology, epistemology, thought are written at the philosophical level of and methodologies, emanates from the simultane- discourse (Parse, 1998a). When the term (Rogers, 1992) and from existential phenomeno- “mankind” was replaced with “male gender” in the logical thought (Parse, 1981, 1992, 1994a, 1995, dictionary definition of “man,” the name of the 1997a, 1998a). In the assumptions, the author sets theory was changed to “human becoming” (Parse, forth the view that unitary humans, in mutual 1992). With process with the universe, are cocreating a unique the 1998 publication of The Human Becoming becoming. The mutual process is the all-at- School of Thought, Parse expanded the original onceness of living freely chosen meanings that arise work to include descriptions of three research with multidimensional experiences. The chosen methodologies and a unique practice methodology, meanings are the value priorities cocreated in tran- thus classifying the science of Human Becoming as scending with the possibles in unitary emergence a school of thought (Parse, 1997c). The principles and the assumptions of the human Human Becoming is a basic human science that becoming school of thought make up the ontology. The principles of human becoming, which describe the central phenomenon of nursing (the human- Human Becoming is a basic human science universe-health process), arise from the three that has cocreated human experiences as major themes of the assumptions: meaning, rhyth- its central focus. The ontology—that is, the assumptions and explicates fundamental paradoxes of human be- principles—sets forth beliefs that are clearly differ- coming (Parse, 1998a, p. Discipline-specific knowledge is articulated in Paradoxes are not opposites or problems to be unique language specifying a position on the phe- solved but, rather, are ways humans live their cho- nomenon of concern for each discipline. The principles are the author explicates the idea that humans con- referred to as the Human Becoming Theory. The struct personal realities with unique choosings concepts, with the paradoxes, describe the human- from multidimensional realms of the universe. This ontological base gives Reality, the meaning given to the situation, is the rise to the epistemology and methodologies of individual human’s ever-changing seamless sym- Human Becoming.

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On average cheap carbidopa 300 mg online medications qt prolongation, three number of child abuse cases indicates increased occur- children died each day in the United States from abuse or rences of abuse or increased public awareness that en- neglect in 1997 buy 110 mg carbidopa with mastercard medicine 4 the people. These figures represent substantiated cases trusted carbidopa 125mg treatment 3 degree heart block, four types, although many psychologists dispute the use- meaning they were investigated by child protection ser- fulness of doing so. Like any statistics on child abuse, these must be considered incomplete, since not all cases of abuse are reported. Telephone: toll-free (800) 422-4453 Still, newly arrived immigrants not yet acculturated •National Coalition Against Domestic Violence Telephone: (303) 839-1852 in the United States may, to their surprise, face social service intervention for their cultural practices toward • National Council on Child Abuse and Family Violence children, deemed as child abuse in the United States. Physical abuse does appear more frequently • National Runaway Switchboard in poor families. The possibility of abuse should be investigated if a child shows a number of these symptoms, or any of them to a marked degree: Sexual Abuse Being overly affectionate or knowledgeable in a sexual way inappropriate to the child’s age Medical problems such as chronic itching, pain in the genitals, venereal diseases Other extreme reactions, such as depression, self-mutilation, suicide attempts, running away, overdoses, anorexia Personality changes such as becoming insecure or clinging Regressing to younger behavior patterns such as thumb sucking or bringing out discarded cuddly toys Sudden loss of appetite or compulsive eating Being isolated or withdrawn Inability to concentrate Lack of trust or fear someone they know well, such as not wanting to be alone with a babysitter Starting to wet again, day or night/nightmares Become worried about clothing being removed Suddenly drawing sexually explicit pictures Trying to be “ultra-good” or perfect; overreacting to criticism Physical Abuse Unexplained recurrent injuries or burns Improbable excuses or refusal to explain injuries Wearing clothes to cover injuries, even in hot weather Refusal to undress for gym Bald patches Chronic running away Fear of medical help or examination Self-destructive tendencies Aggression towards others Fear of physical contact—shrinking back if touched Admitting that they are punished, but the punishment is excessive (such as a child being beaten every night to “make him/her study”) Fear of suspected abuser being contacted Emotional Abuse Physical, mental, and emotional development lags Sudden speech disorders Continual self-depreciation (“I’m stupid, ugly, worthless, etc. It is also possible that a child may show no outward signs and hide what is happening from everyone. Even with such reporting bias, cially, abused children show difficulty in developing however, poverty seems strongly linked to abuse. Child abuse is also linked to parental use of alcohol Within the home, abused children are more disrup- or other drugs. Several studies conducted during the tive and aggressive, frequently viewed by their parents as 1970s confirmed that nearly 70 percent of substantiated defiant and noncompliant. The same the parents’ lower threshold of tolerance for children’s child cues triggers more upset in abusive parents than in noncompliance. Most abusers are likely to have been As adolescents, abused children are more likely to be abused themselves and generally resort to violence to in contact with the juvenile justice system than nonabused cope with life stressors. Their abusive actions can be children of comparable family constellation and income seen as subconscious reactions to an array of stressful as- level. Many of these children are labeled “ungovernable” pects of parenting, including disappointment in the gen- for committing offenses such as running away and truan- der or appearance of a child; a jealous reaction to the at- cy. A higher proportion of abused than nonabused delin- tention a child diverts from themselves; an attempt by quent youth are also involved in crimes of assault. Pedophiles often have a history of being abused themselves, and abusing other Over the last several years, many consider the num- children seems to be triggered by increased life stressors, ber of child abuse reportings to be at epidemic levels. Many find the re- occur due to cumulative neurological damage or due to ports a reflection of a sexually disturbed society, while inadequate stimulation and uncertainty in the child about others believe that increased reporting is the result of sen- the learning environment and the absence of positive sationalist media accounts, celebrity pronouncements parental interactions that would stimulate language and about their own abuse, and over-zealous therapists who motor processes. These delays, in concert with their par- too readily suggest to patients that episodes of sexual ents’ higher-than-normal expectations for their children’s abuse may lay at the heart of their other problems. A coercive cycle frequently devel- peatedly tortured by friends and family members in ops where parents and children mutually control one an- elaborate Satanic ceremonies often involving human other with threats of negative behavior. Writing in The Journal of School-aged children who are abused typically have Psychohistory in 1994, psychoanalyst David Lotto re- problems academically with poorer grades and perfor- ported that at a recent convention of the American mance on standardized achievement tests. Studies of Psychological Association, 800 therapists reported that abused children’s intellectual performance find lower they were currently treating cases of ritual abuse. Abused children also toward dis- researcher David Finkelhor found that as many as 13% tractibility and overactivity, making school a very diffi- of child abuse allegations occurring at day care centers cult environment for them. Stanley Hall, the “father of child psychology their abuse occurred, and yet no trace has ever been in America,” publishes The Contents of Children’s found of such a construction. Putting aside the current controversy over the preva- 1914 John Broadus Watson publishes his most impor- lence of child sexual abuse in this country, no one dis- tant work, Behavior—An Introduction to Com- putes that sexual abuse does in fact occur and takes a parative Psychology. Sexually abused chil- 1926 Jean Piaget publishes The Child’s Conception of dren may still be preoccupied in adulthood with events, the World, followed ten years later by The Orgin trying to understand and repair the damage. Sexual abuse, like severe physi- 1934 Arnold Gesell publishes An Atlas of Infant Behav- cal and emotional abuse, can lead to other psychological ior, followed by Child in the Culture of Today (1943), The Child from Five to Ten (1946), and disorders as well, such as depression, mood disorders, Child Development (1949). In this work, Darwin advanced Interview with National Committee for the Prevention of Child the hypothesis that each individual’s development from Abuse, April 17, 1996. Child development Berry Brazelton, child development has been studied and written about to better understand of children in order The study of the sequential physical, cognitive, to promote their well-being during the various stages of emotional, and social changes a child undergoes childhood, and to help them mature into healthy adults. Freud developed many theories about the enormous The first detailed scientific study of child development influence of childhood experiences on adult behavior was probably Charles Darwin’s Biographical Sketch of and also proposed a five-stage chronological model of an Infant (1877), based on a log he had kept on the devel- childhood psychosexual development. Next comes the phallic stage (3 to 7 years), during Lawrence Kohlberg’s work on the development of which a child experiences and resolves the Oedipal crisis moral reasoning approaches childhood from a different and assumes his or her sexual identity. After studying the different ways in which cy stage (ages 7 to 12) sexuality is dormant, and the pri- children aged 7 through adolescence respond to moral mary love objects are people outside the home. With the dilemmas, Kohlberg determined that there are universal genital stage, which begins at age 12 and lasts into adult- stages in moral development, which, like the cognitive hood, instinctual sexual drives increase and parental at- stages delineated by Piaget, differ from each other quali- tachments are dissolved. Children from the ages of 7 through about 10 act Arnold Gesell was among the first psychologists to on the preconventional level,which involves deferring to undertake a thorough quantitative study of normal adults and obeying rules based on the immediate human development from birth through adolescence. At around age 10, Based on his work at Yale’s Child Development Clinic they progress to the conventional level, where their be- and his own Institute, Gesell produced reports that had a havior is guided by the opinions of other people and the widespread influence on both parents and educators, and desire to conform. During adolescence, children become created the Gesell Development Schedules, which are capable of postconventional morality, which entails the still used today to assess motor and language develop- ability to formulate abstract moral principles and act on ment, adaptive behavior, and personal-social behavior in motives that transcend self-interest and even social children between four weeks and six years of age. Probably the most famous theory of child develop- In recent years, researchers in child development ment is the cognitive development model pioneered by have focused increasingly on the developmental patterns the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Carol Gilligan, development between birth and late adolescence into four Kohlberg’s colleague at Harvard University, found fault stages of increasingly complex and abstract thought, each with Kohlberg’s exclusive focus on white males in his qualitatively different from the ones preceding it but still initial research, and in her own study, In a Different dependent on them. The first, or sensorimotor, stage Voice, Gilligan differentiates between male and female (birth to approximately 2 years) is a time of nonverbal, moral development. In contrast to the male problem- experimental basic learning when infants experience the solving approach to moral dilemmas based on an “ethic world primarily through their senses and gradually gain of justice,” she describes a female “ethic of care” that is mastery of their own bodies and external objects. The based on empathy and involves the perception of moral preoperational stage (ages 2 to 6 years) involves the asso- dilemmas in terms of conflicting responsibilities rather ciation of objects with words and the ability to solve than competing rights. Child Psychology: Development and Be- operations, stage (ages 12 and higher) is characterized by havior Analysis. A Child’s World: Infancy through Adoles- stages is the one proposed by neo-Freudian Erik Erikson cence. While Erikson’s eight- stage theory encompasses the entire human life span, much of it is centered on childhood and adolescence. Each devel- opmental stage in Erikson’s scheme is concerned with a central conflict: trust versus mistrust in infancy; autonomy Childhood versus doubt and shame in early childhood; initiative ver- The period between birth and adulthood, during sus guilt in the preschool period; and industry versus infe- which a person develops physically, intellectually, riority during the early school years. In addition to genetic Childhood has been defined differently across the abnormalities like Down syndrome,environmental ages. These might lieved children were born with certain dispositions that be maternal viruses such as rubella (German measles) or could be changed by their environment.

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These stages represent a long period of time—longer 125 mg carbidopa symptoms of pregnancy, in fact buy carbidopa 300mg without prescription symptoms 6 week pregnancy, than any of the other developmental stages—and the bulk of our lives is spent in them carbidopa 300 mg sale medications with sulfur. These are also the periods in which most of us make our most substantial contributions to society, by meeting two of Erik Erikson‘s life challenges: We learn to give and receive love in a close, long-term Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. One thing that you may have wondered about as you grew up, and which you may start to think about again if you decide to have children yourself, concerns the skills involved in parenting. Some parents are strict, others are lax; some parents spend a lot of time with their kids, trying to resolve their problems and helping to keep them out of dangerous situations, whereas others leave their children with nannies or in day care. Some parents hug and kiss their kids and say that they love them over and over every day, whereas others never do. We have already considered two answers to this question, in the form of what all children require: (1) babies need a conscientious mother who does not smoke, drink, or use drugs during her pregnancy, and (2) infants need caretakers who are consistently available, loving, and supportive to help them form a secure base. One case in which these basic goals are less likely to be met is when the mother is an adolescent. Adolescent mothers are more likely to use drugs and alcohol during their pregnancies, to have poor parenting skills in general, and to provide insufficient support for [1] the child (Ekéus, Christensson, & Hjern, 2004). As a result, the babies of adolescent mothers have higher rates of academic failure, delinquency, and incarceration in comparison to children of older mothers (Moore & Brooks-Gunn, [2] 2002). Normally, it is the mother who provides early attachment, but fathers are not irrelevant. In fact, studies have found that children whose fathers are more involved tend to be more cognitively and socially competent, more empathic, and psychologically better adjusted, compared with children whose fathers are less involved (Rohner & Veneziano, [3] [4] 2001). In fact, Amato (1994) found that, in some cases, the role of the father can be as or even more important than that of the mother in the child‘s overall psychological health and well-being. Amato concluded, ―Regardless of the quality of the mother-child relationship, the closer adult offspring were to their fathers, the happier, more satisfied, and less distressed they reported being‖ (p. As the child grows, parents take on one of four types ofparenting styles—parental behaviors that determine the nature of parent-child interactions and that guide their interaction with the child. These styles depend on whether the parent is more or less demanding and more or less responsive to the child (see Figure 6. Authoritative parents are demanding (―You must be home by curfew‖), but they are also responsive to the needs and opinions of the child (―Let‘s discuss what an appropriate curfew might be‖). They set rules and enforce them, but they also explain and discuss the reasons behind the rules. The authoritative style, characterized by both responsiveness and also demandingness, is the most effective. Many studies of children and their parents, using different methods, measures, and samples, have reached the same conclusion—namely, that authoritative parenting, in comparison to the other three styles, is associated with a wide range of psychological and social advantages for children. Parents who use the authoritative style, with its combination of demands on the children as well as responsiveness to the children‘s needs, have kids who have better psychological adjustment, school performance, and psychosocial maturity, compared with parents who use the other [5] styles (Baumrind, 1996; Grolnick & Ryan, 1989). On the other hand, there are at least some cultural differences in the effectiveness of different parenting styles. Although the reasons for the differences are not completely understood, strict authoritarian parenting styles seem to work better in African American families than in European American [6] families (Tamis-LeMonda, Briggs, McClowry, & Snow, 2008), and better in Chinese families than in American [7] families (Chang, Lansford, Schwartz, & Farver, 2004). Despite the fact that different parenting styles are differentially effective overall, every child is different and parents must be adaptable. Some children have particularly difficult temperaments, and these children require more parenting. Because these difficult children demand more parenting, the behaviors of the parents matter more for the children‘s development than they do for other, less demanding children who require less parenting overall (Pleuss & [8] Belsky, 2010). These findings remind us how the behavior of the child can influence the behavior of the people in his or her environment. Although the focus is on the child, the parents must never forget about each other. Parenting is time consuming and emotionally taxing, and the parents must work together to create a relationship in which both mother and father contribute to the household tasks and support each other. It is also important for the parents to invest time in their own intimacy, as happy parents are more likely to stay together, and divorce has a profoundly negative impact on children, particularly during and immediately after the divorce (Burt, Barnes, McGue, & Iaconon, 2008; Ge, Natsuaki, [9] & Conger, 2006). Physical and Cognitive Changes in Early and Middle Adulthood Compared with the other stages, the physical and cognitive changes that occur in the stages of early and middle adulthood are less dramatic. As individuals pass into their 30s and 40s, their Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Visual acuity diminishes somewhat, and many people in their late 30s and early 40s begin to notice that their eyes are changing and they need eyeglasses. Adults in their 30s and 40s may also begin to suffer some hearing loss because of damage to the hair cells (cilia) [11] in the inner ear (Lacher-Fougëre & Demany, 2005). And it is during middle adulthood that many people first begin to suffer from ailments such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure [12] as well as low bone density (Shelton, 2006). Corresponding to changes in our physical abilities, our cognitive and sensory abilities also seem to show some, but not dramatic, decline during this stage. Menopause The stages of both early and middle adulthood bring about a gradual decline in fertility, particularly for women. Eventually, women experience menopause,the cessation of the menstrual cycle, which usually occurs at around age 50. Menopause occurs because of the gradual decrease in the production of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which slows the production and release of eggs into the uterus. Women whose menstrual cycles have stopped for 12 consecutive months are considered to have entered menopause (Minkin & Wright, [13] 2004). Researchers have found that women‘s responses to menopause are both social as well as physical, and that they vary substantially across both individuals and cultures. Within individuals, some women may react more negatively to menopause, worrying that they have lost their femininity and that their final chance to bear children is over, whereas other women may regard menopause more positively, focusing on the new freedom from menstrual discomfort and unwanted pregnancy. In Western cultures such as in the United States, women are likely to see menopause as a challenging and potentially negative event, whereas in India, where older Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Infants have better chances of survival when their mothers are younger and have more energy to care for them, and the presence of older women who do not have children of their own to care for (but who can help out with raising grandchildren) can be beneficial to the family group.

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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces cue-induced food craving in bulimic disorders order carbidopa 125mg online treatment kawasaki disease. Disruption of the right temporoparietal junction with transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces the role of beliefs in moral judgments 110mg carbidopa visa medicine 2. When hurt will not heal: Exploring the capacity to relive social and physical pain discount carbidopa 125 mg line 2c19 medications. Explain how the electrical components of the nervous system and the chemical components of the endocrine system work together to influence behavior. Now that we have considered how individual neurons operate and the roles of the different brain areas, it is time to ask how the body manages to “put it all together. In this section we will see that the complexities of human behavior are accomplished through the joint actions of electrical and chemical processes in the nervous system and the endocrine system. Electrical Control of Behavior: The Nervous System The nervous system (see Figure 3. Everything that we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste is conveyed to us from our sensory organs as neural impulses, and each of the commands that the brain sends to the body, both consciously and unconsciously, travels through this system as well. A sensory (or afferent) neuron carries information from the sensory receptors, whereas a motor (or efferent) neuron transmits information to the muscles and glands. Interneurons allow the brain to combine the multiple sources of available information to create a coherent picture of the sensory information being conveyed. The spinal cord is the long, thin, tubular bundle of nerves and supporting cells that extends down from the brain. Within the spinal cord, ascending tracts of sensory neurons relay sensory information from the sense organs to the brain Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. When a quicker-than-usual response is required, the spinal cord can do its own processing, bypassing the brain altogether. A reflex is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. Reflexes are triggered when sensory information is powerful enough to reach a given threshold and the interneurons in the spinal cord act to send a message back through the motor neurons without relaying the information to the brain (see Figure 3. When you touch a hot stove and immediately pull your hand back, or when you fumble your cell phone and instinctively reach to catch it before it falls, reflexes in your spinal cord order the appropriate responses before your brain even knows what is happening. These quick responses, known as reflexes, can reduce the damage that we might experience as a result of, for instance, touching a hot stove. The somatic nervous system consists primarily of motor nerves responsible for sending brain signals for muscle contraction. The autonomic nervous system itself can be further subdivided into thesympathetic and parasympathetic systems (see Figure 3. The sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions normally function in opposition to each other, such that the sympathetic division acts a bit like the accelerator pedal on a car and the parasympathetic division acts like the brake. Our everyday activities are controlled by the interaction between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. For example, when we get out of bed in the morning, we would experience a sharp drop in blood pressure if it were not for the action of the sympathetic system, which automatically increases blood flow through the body. Similarly, after we eat a big meal, the parasympathetic system automatically sends more blood to the stomach and intestines, allowing us to efficiently digest the food. And perhaps you’ve had the experience of not being at Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The two systems work together to maintain vital bodily functions, resulting in homeostasis, the natural balance in the body’s systems. The Body’s Chemicals Help Control Behavior: The Endocrine System The nervous system is designed to protect us from danger through its interpretation of and reactions to stimuli. But a primary function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems is to interact with the endocrine system to elicit chemicals that provide another system for influencing our feelings and behaviors. A gland in the endocrine system is made up of groups of cells that function to secrete hormones. A hormone is a chemical that moves throughout the body to help regulate emotions and behaviors. When the hormones released by one gland arrive at receptor tissues or other glands, these receiving receptors may trigger the release of other hormones, resulting in a series of complex chemical chain reactions. The endocrine system works together with the nervous system to influence many aspects of human behavior, including growth, reproduction, and metabolism. Because the glands in men and women differ, hormones also help explain some of the observed behavioral differences between men and women. The pituitary gland, a small pea-sized gland located near the center of the brain, is responsible for controlling the body’s growth, but it also has many other influences that make it of primary importance to regulating behavior. The pituitary secretes hormones that influence our responses to pain as well as hormones that signal the ovaries and testes to make sex hormones. Because the pituitary has such an important influence on other glands, it is sometimes known as the “master gland. Theadrenal glands produce hormones that regulate salt and water balance in the body, and they are involved in metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function. The most important function of the adrenal glands is to secrete the hormones epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) andnorepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) when we are excited, threatened, or stressed. The activity and role of the adrenal glands in response to stress provides an excellent example of the close relationship and interdependency of the nervous and endocrine systems. A quick-acting nervous system is essential for immediate activation of the adrenal glands, while the endocrine system mobilizes the body for action. The male sex glands, known as the testes, secrete a number of hormones, the most important of which is testosterone, the male sex hormone. Testosterone regulates body changes associated Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Estrogen is involved in the development of female sexual features, including breast growth, the accumulation of body fat around the hips and thighs, and the growth spurt that occurs during puberty. Both estrogen and progesterone are also involved in pregnancy and the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Recent research has pinpointed some of the important roles of the sex hormones in social [1] behavior. Dabbs, Hargrove, and Heusel (1996) measured the testosterone levels of 240 men who were members of 12 fraternities at two universities.

Morris College. 2019.